Personality disorder is characterized by a relatively enduring and pervasive disturbance in how individuals experience and interpret themselves, others, and the world that results in maladaptive patterns of cognition, emotional experience, emotional expression, and behaviour. These maladaptive patterns are relatively inflexible and are associated with significant problems in psychosocial functioning that are particularly evident in interpersonal relationships. The disturbance is manifest across a range of personal and social situations (i.e., is not limited to specific relationships or situations). Personality disorder is of long duration, typically lasting at least several years. Most commonly, it has its first manifestations in adolescence and is clearly evident in young adult life.
Prominent personality traits or patterns
Trait domain descriptors may be used to characterize the personality features of individuals diagnosed with Personality disorders (in the chapter on Mental and behavioural disorders) or Personality difficulty (in the chapter on Factors influencing health status and contact with health services). A trait domain should be coded only if its features are prominent in the personality makeup of the individual diagnosed with Personality disorder or Personality difficulty and there is evidence that the characteristics described by the trait domain are associated with impairment in psychosocial functioning. Multiple trait domains may be specified, as many as necessary to capture the individual’s characteristics that are relevant to the Personality disorder or Personality difficulty. Unless accompanied by a diagnosis of Personality disorder or Personality difficulty, the Trait domains are not meaningful indicators or descriptors of psychopathology. In addition, this grouping include a designation for borderline pattern in individuals with Personality disorder, which may be used in addition to or instead of the identification of prominent Trait domains.
Personality disorders and related traits